recette gastronomique, recette de cuisine
recettes gastronomiques, recettes de cuisine gastronomiques

Gourmet Glossary

A

Adjust (Rectifier): To correct the seasoning of a dish before serving it.
Aumonière: Describes a savory or sweet mix placed in the centre of a small crêpe that is closed round it like a pouch. This term may be extended to all other dishes with this shape.


B

Blanch (Blanchir): This word has three different meanings in cookery. a) To pass ingredients through boiling water. b) To mix egg yolk and sugar vigorously for a long time until the mixture becomes lighter in color and changes consistency and c) To plunge potatoes into a deep fat-frying pan without allowing them to brown.
Boil (Cuire à l’anglaise): refers to vegetables cooked in boiling water with salt. They are then served plain, with only fresh butter and/or chopped parsley for decoration.
Bouquet garni: A small bunch of herbs tied together with string and traditionally made up of sprigs of parsley and thyme and bay leaves.
Braise (Etuver): Cook on a low heat with little or no added liquid. The food thereby cooks in its own juices.
Brunoise: a) A way of dicing vegetables very finely. b) The result of chopping vegetables according to this method.


C

Conical Fine- Mesh Strainer (Chinois étamine): Conical fine metallic mesh strainer for fine filtering liquids or semi-liquids.
Clarify (Clarifier): Cause to become clear and transparent. a) Clarify butter: after melting butter gently, to remove the foam that has formed on the surface and gently pour the melted butter off from the whey collected at the bottom. b) Clarify a broth: to add slightly beaten egg white, lean minced meat and herbs to the broth while it is cold and then gradually boil.
Chop or Crush (concasser): To chop roughly or crush.
Cream (Crémer): To add cream.


D

Deglazing (Déglaçage): a) To dissolve caramelized sugar from a baking receptacle with a small amount of liquid. b) The juice obtained when this is done.
Deglaze (Déglacer): To carry out deglazing.
Dress (Dresser): to arrange the different components of a dish on a plate harmoniously and tastefully. Dressing hot dishes is a crucial procedure because the cooking of all the elements has to be completed at the same time.


F

Finely Chop (Ciseler): To chop up vegetables and herbs into very small pieces.
Fish Filleting Knife (Couteau à Filets de Sole): Describes a knife with a very long, narrow, flexible blade. This knife allows for easy removal of fish fillets along the backbone.
Flour (Fleurer): to sprinkle a small amount of flour onto the work surface or into a mould to stop dough from sticking.
Fluter/Fluting Instrument (Canneleur): A small instrument used to make V-shaped grooves in the surface of fruit and vegetables for decoration.


G

Garlic in its Jacket (Ail en chemise): cloves of garlic left whole and unpeeled.


J

Julienne: Vegetables or other food cut into same-sized slices 1 to 2 cm thick then placed in layers and finely cut into shreds 3 to 5 cm long.


L

Light Caramel (Caramel blond): Sugar cooked or "caramelized" until golden yellow, then removed from the heat.


M

Maltese Oranges (Orange maltaise): "Red" or "Blood" oranges.
Melon Scoop (Cuiller parisienne): Utensil used to remove small balls. The scoop may be round, oval, smooth or fluted.


O

On one side (à l’unilatérale): describes the procedure of cooking food on one side only.


P

Pastry pricker (Rouleau pique-pâte): A hand-operated wooden, metal or plastic roller for pricking hollow dough bases to prevent them from rising when baked. If no pastry pricker is available a fork is used.
Place on a Tray (Plaquer): Place on a tray (tray for clearing dishes, baking tray, cake tray or roasting tray).
Potato peeler (Econome): A small knife-shaped utensil fitted with a blade designed for peeling fruits and vegetables easily.


Q

Q.s: Abbreviation for "sufficient quantity" (quantité suffisante) or a quantity determined at the cook’s discretion.


R

Reduce (Réduire): Decrease the volume of a liquid ingredient by keeping it on the boil to concentrate its taste and change its consistency. Set Aside (Reserver): Set a dish aside in the refrigerator or in a hot place with a view to using it later on.
Remove (Lever): a) To remove parts of meat, poultry, fish or vegetables. b) To rise (pastry), through being activated by yeast or other raising agents.
Ring (Cercle): A stainless steel ring of variable diameter and depth. Rings are used as molds for iced desserts, bavaroises or tarts.


S

Scald (Monder): To remove skin from fruit after soaking for several seconds in boiling water.
Silicon baking tray (Toile de cuisson en silicone): This baking tray, manufactured from silicon-impregnated glass fiber, is non-stick, resistant to wear and tear from cooking and easy to clean.
Skimmer (Ecumoire): A large round scoop with pierced holes and a long handle. A large stainless steel skimmer is known as an "araignée" or spider skimmer.
Slicer (Eminceur): or slicing knife. A large knife with a wide round-edged blade used for slicing by rocking the knife backwards and forwards.
Slice into Cutlets (Escaloper): Cut diagonally into slices of varying thicknesses for an attractive presentation.
Strainer (Chinois): stainless steel conical sieve with small holes.
Stiffen/Thicken (Monter): a) Beat vigorously with a whisk to increase the volume and change the consistency of the mixture through beating air into it. b) Beat egg yolks vigorously over a low heat to obtain a creamy consistency. c) Emulsify a fatty substance in egg yolk (mayonnaise). d) Mix small cubes of cold butter vigorously into a sauce.
String (Cordon): The shape formed by a sauce or coulis that has thickened sufficiently not to run.
Supreme: Chicken breasts, cooked game fillet, fine fish fillet and, by extension, all refined dishes.
Sweat: To cook very gently in fat one or several finely chopped vegetables to concentrate their taste, taking the greatest care not to brown them.


T

Tant-pour-tant: Mixture of castor sugar and powdered almonds in equal proportions. Used in patisserie. By extension, this expression is used in cuisine every time two ingredients are used in equal proportions.
Trim (Parer): Remove unwanted or unattractive parts from a piece of meat, poultry, fish or vegetables.
Trim: (Ébarber): a) A poached egg: to cut off any fine white jagged edges around the egg to improve its presentation. b): A fish: to cut the fins off a raw fish with scissors.


V

Vanner: To stir cooked ingredients to speed up the cooling process and, if necessary, prevent skin formation.
Veal stock: (Fond de Veau) Sauce base made from oven-roasted veal bones and beef tails. These heavily caramelized elements are supplemented with carrots, onions and herbs and cold water is generously added before boiling for several hours. The stock is first strained then restrained through a fine-mesh conical strainer and reduced to the consistency required.
Vegetable Slicer (Mandoline): an adjustable vegetable cutter with fluted cutting edges on a single base sheet.


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